Living and thriving through regenerative practices and a sustainable worldview.

Growing Food

The Nitty Gritty Guide

Check out a new project from Alli and Carlo Manzella, called “The Nitty Gritty Guide – Our Guide To The Good Life“.

The Nitty Gritty Guide

The Nitty Gritty Guide

An excerpt from their site states: “We are a growing number of individuals from various different backgrounds who have come together to share and learn time honored skills, traditional art forms and revive the knowledge that kept our ancestors alive and thriving without the dependency on modern conveniences, imports, petroleum based products, the commercial agricultural system and conventional food.”

These two are interviewing people who are doing work in the areas mentioned above within their local community, in order to spread the word and educate folks about what they’re doing.

Check out their latest interviews here!


Light pollution shown to affect plant growth and food webs

Passing this article along from: http://phys.org/news/2015-03-pollution-shown-affect-growth-food.html

Light pollution shown to affect plant growth and food webs

Researchers from the University of Exeter simulated the effects of street lighting on artificial grassland plots containing a community of invertebrates at night, exposing them to two different types of light treatment – a ‘white’ light similar to newer commercial LED street lighting systems and an ‘amber’ light simulating the type of sodium street lamp still found in much of the UK. The experiments investigated both top-down (driven by predators) and bottom-up (food or resource limited) effects of the lights on the population density of a species of pea aphid, and in the presence and absence of predators including ladybirds Credit: Jon Bennie/University of Exeter

Artificial night time light from sources such as street lamps affects the growth and flowering of plants and even the number of insects that depend on those plants for food, a study published today confirms.
The research shows that pollution can impact the natural environment in complex ways that may be hard to predict. Due to the global extent of artificial light at night, there are concerns that these ecological impacts may be widespread.

Researchers from the University of Exeter simulated the effects of on artificial grassland plots containing a community of invertebrates at night, exposing them to two different types of light treatment – a ‘white’ light similar to newer commercial LED street lighting systems and an ‘amber’ light simulating the type of sodium street lamp still found in much of the UK.

The experiments investigated both top-down (driven by predators) and bottom-up (food or resource limited) effects of the lights on the population density of a species of pea aphid, and in the presence and absence of predators including ladybirds.

The low intensity amber light was shown to inhibit, rather than induce, flowering in greater bird’s foot trefoil, a wild relative of peas and beans that is a key source of food for the in grasslands and road verges. In mid summer aphids feed on the flowering shoots; the number of aphids was significantly suppressed under the light treatment in mid-August due to the limited amount of food available.
Professor Kevin Gaston, Director of the Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI) said: “These are the first findings from major long-term experiments being funded by the European Research Council, and already reveal how profound the impacts of artificial night time lighting can be on even simple communities of organisms.”

Dr Jonathan Bennie of the ESI added: “Our results suggest that by lighting up our night time environment we trigger complex effects on natural webs. While we are all aware that street lights often attract insects at night, we show that they may have more permanent, widespread impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.”

Explore further: Researchers find LEDs attract more flying invertebrates than conventional lighting

More information: ‘Cascading effects of artificial light at night: resource-mediated control of herbivores in a grassland ecosystem’ by Jonathan Bennie, Thomas W. Davies, David Cruse, Richard Inger and Kevin J. Gaston is published in the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.

Journal reference: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B search and more info


Grow your own caffeine!!!!

Grow your own caffeine!

To make this planter, go here: http://lisapace.com/2011/04/coffee-cup-planter/

With SO many folks dependent on caffeine for their morning wake-up call, it’s a little unnerving to think what might happen if coffee and chocolate imports suddenly stopped flowing. Can you imagine morning rush hour? I’m picturing lots of people on the roads half-asleep and really cranky. A scene ripe for some sloppy, half-hearted, road rage with zombie-like motorists. Not pretty.

While I do not personally choose to partake of things that get my heart-rate speeding,  I do appreciate the occasional shot of caffeine for things like migraines and other health-related nuisances.  So, in order to avoid being left out in the cold if there should be a great coffee or cocoa bean famine, I wondered what can be grown here in North America, that can caffeinate folks and keep ‘em easy to get along with in the early hours.

I found the following crops, with links to more info:

Black tea (C. sinensis) - http://www.vegetablegardener.com/item/6466/grow-black-tea-in-your-garden

Yaupon Holly (Ilex vomitoria) is native to the Southeastern states. This holly features short leaves, about ½-inch long, bright-red berries, dark evergreen leaves and grey bark with white patches. The Youpon holly contains caffeine and it was a popular drink among Native Americans in the area. In fact, it is named “Ilex vomitoria” because people would drink it until full and vomit it up – the plant does not actually cause vomiting. Yaupon holly grows best in USDA zones 7 to 9.
More info also found here:  http://people.duke.edu/~cwcook/trees/ilvo.html

Yerba Mate  (Ilex paraguariensis): Another type of holly that can be grown in Zone 10 and higher outdoors, or indoors in a greenhouse environment.
http://www.ehow.com/info_8348882_can-grow-own-yerba-mate.html
http://www.logees.com/Yerba-Mate-Ilex-paraguariensis/productinfo/H8095-2/

A nice table of caffeine-producing plants: http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2001/tilling/sources.htm


The New 2013 Herbal Roots Calendar

Do you have kids who love learning about plants, herbs, or foraging?
Are you a kid at heart yourself? (I certainly am!)

Then you might just dig the new 2013 Herbal Roots Calendar, from the kids’ magazine “Herbal Roots”.
You can purchase a pre-made calendar HERE, or print it out for free HERE.

(The ‘zine is pretty cool too, check it out!)

Herbal Roots Calendar 2013

Herbal Roots Calendar 2013

From Mountain Rose Herbs:
“This delightful and educational calendar, beautifully illustrated by Herbal Roots zine creator Kristine Brown, is not only visually stunning, but is also a treasure trove of herbal education. Each month, you’ll enjoy an intricate illustration of a different herb, such as blackberry, vanilla, milk thistle, and more. Each illustration is accompanied by general information for the botanical including Latin name and common uses.”

I am personally a sucker for the occasional dose of *~*whimsy*~*,  but my practical side often wins. Lucky for me, this calendar has both! Check out some sample illustrations:


Halloween Necromancy!

It’s that time of year again when the moon visits longer, the morning comes slowly, and the wind brings a chill to the earth.
The time when certain folks possessing knowledge of the old ways, gather together the remnants of the dead in order to slowly transform them into new life through ancient alchemical practice.

No, I’m not talking about All Hallow’s Eve or some sinister ritual…  I’m talking about fall composting!

I ran across a great article on eartheasy.com that gives a nice bunch of autumn composting tips and figured I’d share.

For those who don’t have a yard, or access to leaves, fear not!
You can still compost, as long as you have enough heat to keep some tiny helpers happy.  I’m talking worm composting, also known as vermicompost.

What the heck is worm composting? Check out this great link that gives a nice run-down on the “ins and outs” of the whole shebang.

 

For those of you who just aren’t into the idea of sharing your home with some creepy crawlies, there’s also bokashi composting.
Although to be truthful, bokashi is more of a fermentation process than composting.

Bokashi

It’s got a tiny space footprint, which makes it great for apartment dwellers, and has been used extensively in Japan for some time.  Bokashi uses “effective micro-organisms” to break down organic material, including a lot of things you CAN’T put in a worm bin or compost heap.  It’s fast, odorless,  and convenient.

Here’s some more information on bokashi.

Keep in mind that there are a LOT of bokashi products out there, from bins to EMs, but you can make any of them at home yourself.

Here’s a good link on making your own bokashi “EM” powder mix.
And here’s a link to Make Your Own Bokashi Bucket


Word of the day: "Balanoculture"

So, what the heck is “Balanoculture“, you ask? Apparently it’s just a fancy-schmancy word for the process and practice of eating acorns.

It’s already made the rounds a LONG time ago in Greece, Arcadia and even North America when Native Americans were still able to live according to their indigenous cultural practices. And now, once again, as America is jumping on the trendy foody/self-sufficiency bandwagon by casually slinging around the term “Balanoculture” in certain circles.

But lucky for you, I’m on the blunt edge of such fancy-schmancy-ness, and have found a great tutorial on how to make your own acorn flour.

Here it is!

Acorn

Acorn


Think you have no place to grow? Think again!

I just LOVE when people get creative with growing food!


Seed Bombs!

This weekend I’m making seed bombs, or “seedballs” at a children’s festival.
Everyone has been so awesome, both kids AND adults.  I think I’m having as much fun as the kids, if not more!

Seed Balls

But first…  “What are seed bombs?”

Well, basically, they consist of a variety of different seeds rolled within a ball of clay and compost.
The clay keeps the seeds safe from animals and wind, and binds the ball together. Once placed outside, the rain washes the clay slowly away and waters the seeds. (You can also place the ball on top of a pot of soil an water it.)

The compost inside the ball provides nutrients for the seeds to grow.

Many people like throwing the balls over fences into vacant lots to grow flowers. I know someone who throws them up a hill onto railroad tracks where they grow into tall stalks of corn that they have seen others come along and harvest. Whatever YOU do with them is up to you, but I”m sure you’ll have fun!

If you’d like to make your own seed bombs, here’s the recipe I’m using, adapted from the “Heavy Pedal” website:
(Click on image to launch PDF)

Ingredients:

5 parts dry red clay (non-toxic)
3 parts dry organic compost
1 part seed
1 – 2 parts water

Directions:
Step one: Measure three parts of dry compost. This provides a growing medium for your seeds.

Step two: Measure five parts of dry powdered clay. Once mixed with water, the clay will hold the seed balls together.

Step three: Add one part seed.

Step four: Add one to two parts water, and combine.  You want the mixture to be moist,
but not really wet. Add water as you go.

Step five: Roll the seed ball mix into balls 1-2 in. in diameter. Be prepared to get messy!

Step six: Set aside on newspaper for a few days to dry.

Throw your seed balls over fences or into vacant lots. Plant them in containers. Use them anywhere!
(The best time for them to grow is in early spring.)


Resilient Existence has seed packets!

After my last post, I got super-inspired to make my own seed packets!

I’ve always loved the beautiful early American illustrations/lithographs/etchings of nature from places like the Audobon Society, etc. I think it captures the primal nature of something more “wild” than ourselves, and yet highlights the elegance of nature’s design in flora and fauna.

Anywho, I made up some seed packets with art from Charles Livingston Bull, from the Library of Congress’ copyright-free image collection.

Enjoy!

(Right Click and “Save As”)


Make Your Own Seed Packets!

I recently came across a plethora of make-your-own seed envelope posts, and I’ll post several of them here.  However, my favorite is the first one, as any kind of paper can be used and I often need tiny little envelopes for a small amount of seeds that I refuse to throw away.

Origami Seed Packet Instructions
Origami Seed envelope

Here are some printer templates for fancier seed packets for gifting, or just getting a dose of “Happy” whenever you reach for your seeds!

Basic, no frills template for multiple packets (saves paper)
Another basic template, but for a single, MUCH larger envelope!  
Template for multiple packets with space for more detailed instructions  
Another classicly simple envelope design (2 packets per page) - Try printing on brown paper for a “Williams Sonoma” look
A stash of beautiful seed packet templates from “Just Something I Made” – for those of us who like pretty things.  
Some more B&W templates to print on colored paper  
BUSINESS CARD seed packets template for reuse of brown paper shopping bags – AWESOME!

My designer’s note: Most inkjet printers do NOT have “white” ink. So, I’m not sure how these were printed with the “white grass”. Also, lighter colors are usually created by using less ink against a white paper. In this case, since the paper is brown, your results will be different. Experiment first before you burn through your ink cartridges!

 
Gorgeous, artsy seed packets – I freakin’ LOVE these! C’mon! A griffin guarding my seeds? Hell yes!  

These are so awesome, that I’ll probably be inspired to create my own. Who am I kidding? I’m already designing them in my head, and seeing as I’m home sick, there will probably be another post later today. Stay tuned…


How to Save Seeds!

Here’s  a GREAT little primer on seed-saving, from the Seed Ambassadors!
http://www.seedambassadors.org/docs/seedzine4handout.pdf


Dehydrating/drying food…

While I’m talking about food, here are a bunch of links on drying food.

Preserving Food: Drying Fruits and Vegetables (almost everything you’d need to know, including re-hydrating and how to build a homemade solar dryer.

I’m also pulling a few links out of the Toolbox (right menu), as they’re classics:

How to Build A Solar Dehydrator For Nearly Free!
How to Make a Solar Food Dehydrater From Beer Cans
Backpacking Chef – How to dehydrate food, and tons of recipes!  Before this website, I had never thought to dehydrate pumpkin pie filling.

*drool*

 


Fall Planting Calculator!

Johnny’s is a great seed source, and also has a wonderful Fall Planting Calculator, among other resources, located here:
http://www.johnnyseeds.com/t-InteractiveTools.aspx


9 Simple Steps to Sheet Mulching

Source: http://www.chelseagreen.com/content/9-simple-steps-to-sheet-mulching/

Excerpt:

Nine Simple Steps to Sheet Mulching

  1. Mow or cut your lawn, weeds, or other vegetation right down to the ground.
  2. Plant any crops that will require a large planting hole (including woody plants, perennials in large pots, and large transplants).
  3. Add soil amendments (as determined by your soil test).
  4. Water the whole area thoroughly. You are going to be putting a layer of cardboard or newspaper over it, and rain and irrigation won’t soak through very well until that weed barrier breaks down. Water also helps the decomposition process get going.
  5. If you have compost materials that may contain weed seeds (like fresh manure, leaves, or hay), spread them in layers on the ground. Put a dry, carbonaceous layer of hay or shredded leaves below any manure layer. Avoid thick layers, and make sure to get a good carbon-to-nitrogen ratio just as if you were building a compost pile (see Start with the Soil or other gardening books for details). Water this layer well.
  6. Lay down a weed barrier. I prefer to use large sheets of cardboard from appliance stores, because these last longer and are quicker to lie down. You can use layers of wet newspaper too. Make sure to have a 4- to 6-inch overlap where sheets meet so buried weeds can’t find a route to the surface. If you have already planted crops, or have other preexisting plants, don’t mulch over them. Cut holes in the cardboard to make some breathing space for each plant (or leave some room around each plant when laying newspaper).
  7. Now you can add your weed-free organic materials. I like to keep it simple, and just add a nice layer of compost. You can also do some sheet composting here, alternating layers of nitrogen-rich materials like fresh grass clippings with carbonaceous materials like weed-free straw.
  8. Now you add your final top mulch layer, at least 3 inches thick. Water the whole bed thoroughly once again. Your sheet mulch bed is complete.
  9. You can plant right into your bed if you like. To plant tubers or potted plants, just pull back the top layers until you get to the weed barrier. Cut an X in the cardboard or newspaper. If you are transplanting a large plant, peel back the corners of the X. Throw a double handful of compost in the planting hole and then put in the plant. Pull the layers and top mulch back around the plant, water well, and you’re all set. Planting seeds is easy too. Just pull back the top mulch to the compost layer and plant your seeds. You may want to cut through the weed barrier below first, depending on weed pressure below the barrier. If you are planting seeds, be sure to water regularly, as compost on top of cardboard can dry out quickly.

See that itty-bitty yard space out front?

BAM!! Awesomeness!

Please go visit http://www.chelseagreen.com/content/9-simple-steps-to-sheet-mulching/ for more!


Portable Poly Pipe High Tunnel Hoop House Construction Plans‏

The Noble Foundation poly pipe hoop house was developed in response to the needs of growers for a low cost, portable structure. It is the product of three years of research and development conducted at the Foundation’s Headquarters Farm.

Download plans here in pdf format:
http://www.noble.org/global/ag/horticulture/poly-pipe-hh-plans/nf-ho-12-01.pdf


Support 'Local Farms, Food and Jobs Act' to help decentralize food system

http://www.naturalnews.com/035214_local_food_farms_jobs.html#ixzz1op3dOqMu

Sunday, March 11, 2012 by: Jonathan Benson, staff writer

(NaturalNews) Federal food policies that distribute billions of taxpayer dollars every year to subsidize the growth of commodity crops like genetically-modified (GM) corn and soy are largely responsible for the dismal state of food quality and health in our nation today. But Rep. Chellie Pingree (D-Maine) and Sen. Sherrod Brown (D-Oh.) have introduced a new bill known as the Local Farms, Food and Jobs Act that would help decentralize the food system and promote diversified, small-scale farming operations capable of meeting the growing demand for clean, fresh, local foods.

At least $12 billion a year is currently allocated to subsidize industrial-scale agriculture systems like pesticide-ridden GM crop mega-farms, and concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) that hold tens of thousands of animals in filth. Meanwhile, only about $100 million a year is allocated to support local food programs that grow and distribute fresh, clean food.

But all this can change with the passage of the Local Farms, Food and Jobs Act, which will provision more money from the Farm Bill for small-scale, organic farmers, and help bring more clean, local food into public school lunchrooms. And since hearings on the 2012 Farm Bill, which will establish federal food policy for the next five years, are already taking place, now is the time to contact your congressmen and urge support for the Local Farms, Food and Jobs Act.

"American consumers want access to healthy, fresh foods and farmers should be able to sell it to them," said Sen. Sherrod Brown (D-Oh.) about the bill. "Local and regional food systems help the communities where farmers and consumers live growing the economy and creating jobs while improving public health and nutrition."

You can read the entire Local Farms, Food and Jobs Act by visiting:
http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c112:S.1773:

Investing in local food systems will help reverse the obesity, chronic disease epidemic in America
Obesity, heart disease, and diabetes are among the top chronic conditions that afflict millions of Americans today, many of whom consume a steady diet of corn- and soy-laden processed foods that are artificially inexpensive because of federal food subsidies. And while more and more people are learning the truth about processed foods and seeking out healthy alternatives, federal policies make it difficult for small-scale farmers to earn a living and provide healthy food for their communities.

“For too long, funding provided by the United States’ most far-reaching food and farm legislation has primarily benefited agri-business and large scale industrial-scale commodity farms that aren’t growing food,” writes Kari Hamerschlag on the EWG blog. “Instead, they’re growing ingredients for animal feed, fuel and highly processed food — at a high cost to our nation’s health, environment and rural communities.”

The federal government has no place interfering in agriculture in the first place, but if it is going to redistribute taxpayers’ money into the food system, it needs to promote the systems that lead to improved nutrition and better health — small-scale, diversified farms.

To learn more, visit:
http://www.ewg.org/local-farms-food-and-jobs-act

To contact your congressmen and urge support for the Local Farms, Food and Jobs Act, visit:
http://action.ewg.org

Sources for this article include:

http://www.ewg.org/local-farms-food-and-jobs-act

http://www.ewg.org

http://www.farmbillfacts.org/agenda-2012/farm-bill-timeline


Homemade Bottom Heat for Seed Starting!

Let’s face it – Burning Man and Christmas only come once a year.
So what to do with the plethora of rope lights sitting in your attic or closet for the rest of the year?
Here’s an awesome tutorial for just that!

http://doorgarden.com/02/home-made-bottom-heat-seed-starting

 
 

Seed Starting Chart

A handy chart for knowing when to plant :

http://www.organicgardening.com/learn-and-grow/seed-starting-chart


IDEP's Companion Planting Guide (Permaculture Perspective)

IDEP’s Companion Planting Guide - This chart lists companion plants from a permaculture perspective, and includes things like “antagonistic” or “companion”, and also insect repellant tendancies.

Click here for full PDF


USDA Plant Hardiness Map – 2012

Seed catalogs are out, and garden-planning season is abound!
While crazy weather has been the norm lately, it’s still a good idea to plan for seasonal conditions, at least for now. ;)

USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map  – 2012

 


Wisdom and Know-How Books!

Black Dog and Leventhal Publishers has a great series of large, everything-you-ever-wanted-to-know-about “X” books.

Check them out here.


Process Books: Self-Reliance series

I have not read any of these, but they look like an interesting series of books. The Preparedness Now! series looks like it has a lot of basic homesteading skills wrapped up for urban and suburban-ites, and others who may not be familiar with the topic. Will have to check it out.
http://processmediainc.com/store/books/selfreliance/

Depression 2.0

Creative Strategies for Tough Economic Times

Cletus Nelson

Depression 2.0 is a practical, empowering, hands-on guide to persevering and even thriving in the event of an economic crisis. Placing particular emphasis on self-sufficiency, community-building, and personal resilience, this timely, informative book offers a hopeful way forward in a time of great uncertainty. Bankruptcy, barter, and survival investing are just a few of the important topics explored.

Getting Out

Getting Out

Your Guide to Leaving America

by Mark Ehrman

View the Getting Out website.

Getting Out walks you through the world of the expat: the reasons, the rules, the resources, the tricks of the trade, along with compelling stories and expertise from expatriate Americans on every continent.

The Natural Kitchen

Your Guide to the Sustainable Food Revolution

Deborah Eden Tull

A simple, revolutionary guide to mindful, sustainable food shopping, planning, preparation, cooking, and eating in the city.

Preparedness Now!

An Emergency Survival Guide
Expanded and Revised Edition

By Aton Edwards

View the Preparedness Now! website

PREPAREDNESS NOW! is the first comprehensive planning and action guide for urbanites and suburbanites who want to live more self-sufficiently and learn how best to provide for themselves and their loved ones in the face of any emergency or disaster. “Aton’s work is tremendously important. What we need to do for the next round is to get ourselves prepared.” — Chuck D., author, musician, and host of “On the Real”

The Urban Homestead

Self-Sufficient Living in the City (Expanded and Revised Edition)

By Kelly Coyne and Erik Knutzen

This celebrated, essential handbook for the urban homesteading movement shows how to grow and preserve your own food, clean your house without toxins, raise chickens, gain energy independence, and more. Step-by-step projects, tips, and anecdotes will help get you started…

When There Is No Doctor

Preventive and Emergency Healthcare in Uncertain Times

By Gerard S. Doyle, MD

The fifth title in Process’ Self-Reliance series demystifies medical practices with a practical approach to 21st Century health and home medicine, particularly helpful for stressful moments in a financial downturn. When There Is No Doctor is smartly designed and full…


FREE Permaculture eBooks!

http://www.green-shopping.co.uk/books/ebooks/free-ebooks.html

“Permaculture is all about one part of a system trying to help another, so this is our attempt to help replicate that, by sharing permaculture knowledge as freely and as widely as we can.

In this section you’ll find a selection of completely free eBook downloads on permaculture and wider environmental topics…”

 


Secondary Edible Parts of Vegetables

From:
http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/extension/newsletters/vpmnews/apr02/art4apr.html

This article by M. J. Stephens, University of Florida, Department of Horticulture, appeared in “Vegetarian,” 98-05.

The culinary reputation of most vegetables is based primarily on the edible qualities of one or sometimes two primary parts of the plant. For example, the tomato is the leading garden vegetable, due to the popular appeal of its fruit, while the turnip contributes both its root and its leaves as table fare. For home gardeners who grow and have the entire vegetable plant at their disposal, other plant parts may be edible, although perhaps not so tasty as the main product. For non-gardeners, however, there is little option for eating parts other than those offered for sale.

The following is a list of ordinary garden vegetables with both commonly-eaten parts and less-frequently eaten parts. Obviously, in a list such as this, there may be quite a few omissions.

Although many of the secondary plant parts are edible, their popularity as food items is diminished by lack of proper flavor or unfavorable texture. For example, the leaves of practically all the cabbage family are edible, but the strong flavors of some species are disagreeable or too strong for most people’s taste.

The edible leaves and stem tips of sweet potato vines are well known in many parts of the world. Often considered a poor man’s food, sweet potato foliage has a rich protein content that helps supplement the nutritional value of the roots.

As for all vegetable parts, there is a great deal of variation within varieties in flavor and culinary characteristics of these secondary parts. For example, some sweet-potato stem tips in certain varieties are bitter, with a resinous flavor that is too strong.

Quite often, cooking is necessary to make the parts edible. Raw leaves eaten fresh may even be slightly poisonous in some cases.

Vegetable Common Edible Parts Other Edible Parts
Beans, snap pod with seeds leaves
Beans, lima seeds pods, leaves
Beets root leaves
Broccoli flower leaves, flower stem
Carrot root leaves
Cauliflower immature flower flower stem, leaves
Celery leaf stems leaves, seeds
Corn, sweet seeds young ears, unfurled tassel, young leaves
Cucumber fruit with seeds stem tips and young leaves
Eggplant fruit with seeds leaves edible but not flavorful
Kohlrabi swollen stem leaves
Okra pods with seeds leaves
Onions root young leaves
Parsley tops roots
Peas, English seeds pods, leaves
Peas, Southern seeds, pods young leaves
Pepper pods leaves after cooking, immature seeds
Potatoes, Sweet roots leaves and stem shoots
Radish roots leaves
Squash fruit with seeds seeds, flowers, young leaves
Tomato fruits with seeds leaves contain alkaloids
Turnip roots, leaves ———-
Watermelon fruit — interior pulp and seeds rind of fruit